Stages of an urbanization project. An urbanization project is a document that defines an urban development proposal in detail. It indicates how the streets and squares will be laid out. It also indicates the green areas and the slopes or protective margins, etc. It defines how and in what way the subway or overhead urban services will be structured. This includes sewerage, water supply, gas supply, electricity supply (low, medium, and high voltage), telephone, other telecommunication networks, and more.
The main purpose of an urbanization project is to carry out work on new industrial estates. They are not urban planning instruments. This means they cannot change the urban use, the heights of the buildings, the widths of the street, or the fundamental gradients of the streets and squares. In general, they cannot change the determinations that correspond to an urban planning instrument.
Urban planning is the preliminary stage that must be completed before an urbanization project is carried out. Urban planning establishes all the measures and movements, starting with the zoning of the land and the layout of the infrastructures. Urban planning must include all the sustainability measures incorporated during the project.
What are the stages of an effective urbanization project?
An urbanization project starts with urban planning. This encompasses the set of technical and normative instruments for determining land use and for regulating the conditions for its transformation. Urban planning also includes groundwork for the conservation of a section of land and its purpose.
This document establishes a planning model for a spatial area, which generally refers to a municipality, an urban area, or a neighborhood-scale zone.
After this first fundamental step, it is important to take into account the stages of an urban planning project:
Planning of the urbanization project and land conditions.
It is very important to know the conditions of the land on which we are going to build. Previous studies and an analysis of the land are necessary to evaluate the measures that can and cannot be applied.
Design and drafting of the urbanization project
In this stage all the necessary technical documentation will be drafted, both descriptive and executive. All this information will lay the foundations for assessing the application of different sustainability measures.
Execution of the urbanization project
The construction stage will be managed by a specialized construction company that has been aware of the urbanization project from the beginning. During this step, the sustainability measures described in the previous stages will also be applied.
Maintenance of the development project
Once the construction of the development project is complete, a number of building management and maintenance activities will be required. This ensures the durability of the buildings in the years following completion.
What is included in a development project?
An urbanization project is made up of the following documents, each with their individual breakdown:
- The urban integration project.
- The project plans.
- The service plans.
- The general specifications.
- The complementary documentation.
Urbanization projects define the technical details of the works and urban services foreseen by urban plans. They are specific to a certain sector or unit of action. Furthermore, urbanization projects are necessary for the urban transformation of the land.
Generally, the design of an urbanization project contemplates the following aspects:
An architectural and landscaping design that complies with the requirements set forth by the owner. This design is generally presented in a preliminary project and a final project.
A structural design of pavements, earth support systems, works of art, and viaducts, among others.
The main design stages are:
– Determination of solicitations by which the structure will be affected.
– Structuring and specifying the supporting elements.
– Design of structural elements and preparation of drawings.
– Drafting of technical specifications.
– Design of installations. This includes drinking water, sewage, rainwater, electricity, and weak currents.
-Finally, all the necessary documents to call for bids must be prepared. Some of these documents include the general and special administrative bases, a draft of the construction contract, and a letter of invitation to participate in the bidding process.
There is a call for bids and awards. Once the projects have been completed and all the necessary documents have been prepared, the invitation to participate in the proposal is issued. The call for bids may be public or private. The awarding of the bid is at the absolute discretion of the principal.
Construction is one of the most important stages in a project. This is because construction is the materialization of the planning.
Among the stages leading to the execution of the construction work, some of the most important are:
- Definition of a management and quality strategy.
- Obtaining permits to execute the construction.
- Final drafting and acceptance by both parties of the construction contract, which establishes the obligations between the principal and the construction company.
- Planning and programming of the works. In this process, the resources necessary for the materialization of the project are fixed.
- Acquisition of materials, machinery, and labor required for the construction of the works by the construction company.
Control of compliance with the proposed program and required specifications is necessary. This control may originate from the construction company itself. It can also originate through the client represented by the Technical Inspection of Works.
Commissioning is the stage in which the work is handed over to the public service. Controls must be previously carried out in order to verify the correct operation of the installations. This includes the verification of tests. Trials are carried out during the construction period. Detailed reviews of each of the elements are compiled, and final tests of the correct operation of the equipment are conducted.
Operation and maintenance is of vital importance. It is important to consider a preventive maintenance plan as the correct operation of the facilities during their useful life is essential.