Stages of an urbanization project. The urbanization project is the document that defines in detail the urban development proposal. It indicates how the streets and squares will be laid out, as well as the green areas, the slopes or protective margins, etc. It also defines how and in what way the subway or overhead urban services will be structured. For example sewerage, water supply, gas supply, and electricity supply, both low voltage and medium voltage and often also high voltage, telephone, and other telecommunication networks and more.
The main purpose of an urbanization project is to carry out the urbanization works of the new industrial estates. They are not urban planning instruments and cannot change the urban use, nor the heights of the buildings, nor the widths of the street, nor the fundamental gradients of the streets and squares, nor, in general, the determinations that correspond to an urban planning instrument.
In general terms, urban planning is the preliminary stage that must be carried out before the urbanization project is carried out. Urban planning establishes all the measures and movements to be carried out, starting with the zoning of the land and the approach to the layout of the infrastructures. This urban planning must include all the sustainability measures to be incorporated during the project.
What are the stages of an effective urbanization project?
After having clear the urban planning, that is to say, the set of technical and normative instruments that are written to order the use of the ground and to regulate the conditions for its transformation or, in its case, conservation.
This document establishes a planning model for a spatial area, which generally refers to a municipality, an urban area, or a neighborhood-scale zone.
After this first fundamental step, it is important to take into account the stages of an urban planning project:
Planning of the urbanization project and land conditions.
It is very important to know the conditions of the land on which we are going to build. Previous studies and an analysis of the land will be necessary to evaluate the measures that can be applied and those that cannot be applied.
Design and drafting of the urbanization project
In this stage all the necessary technical documentation will be drafted, both descriptive and executive. All this information will lay the foundations for assessing the application of the different sustainability measures.
Execution of the urbanization project
The construction stage will be managed by a specialized construction company that is aware of the urbanization project from the beginning. During this stage, the sustainability measures described in the previous stages will also be applied.
Maintenance of the development project
Once the construction of the development project has been completed, a number of building management and maintenance activities will be required to ensure the durability of the buildings in the years following completion.
What is included in a development project?
An urbanization project will be made up of the following documents, which will have their individual breakdown:
- The urban integration project.
- The own plans of the project.
- The service plans.
- The general specifications.
- The complementary documentation.
The Urbanization Projects are projects of works that define the technical details of the works and urban services foreseen by the Urban Plans for a certain sector or unit of action, necessary for the urban transformation to urbanized land through its materialization.
Generally, the design of an urbanization project contemplates the following aspects:
Architectural and landscaping design, complying with the requirements set forth by the owner. Generally presented in a preliminary project and a final project.
Structural design of pavements, earth support systems, works of art, viaducts, among others.
The main design stages are:
– Determination of solicitations to which the structure will be affected.
– Structuring and specification of the supporting elements.
– Design of structural elements and preparation of drawings.
– Drafting of technical specifications.
– Design of installations, including drinking water, sewage, rainwater, electricity, and weak currents.
-Finally, all the necessary documents to call for bids must be prepared, some of them are general and special administrative bases, a draft of the construction contract, letter of invitation to participate in the bidding process, among others.
Call for bids and awarding, once the projects have been completed and all the necessary documents for the call for bids have been prepared, the invitation to participate in the proposal is issued. The call for bids may be public or private, therefore the awarding of the bid is at the absolute discretion of the principal.
Construction is one of the most important stages in a project since it carries out the materialization of the works.
Among the stages leading to the execution of the construction work, we can name some of the most important ones:
- Definition of a management and quality strategy.
- Obtaining permits to execute the works.
- Final drafting and acceptance by both parties of the construction contract, which establishes the obligations between the principal and the construction company.
- Planning and programming of the works, in which time and resources necessary for the materialization of the project are fixed.
- Acquisition by the construction company of materials, machinery, and labor required for the construction of the works.
Control of compliance with the proposed program and required specifications. This control may originate from the construction company itself or through the client represented by the Technical Inspection of Works.
Commissioning, stage in which the work is handed over to the public service. Controls must be previously carried out in order to verify the correct operation of the installations, such as verification of tests. Trials are carried out during the construction period, detailed review of each of the elements built, and final tests of the correct operation of the equipment.
Operation and maintenance, it is of vital importance to consider a preventive maintenance plan, since it is essential for the correct operation of the facilities during their useful life, without generating reductions in their standard.